Mulla Sadra, the founder of the
Transcendent philosophy, is one of the philosophers who also pays attention to
the field of logic and has some works in this regard. Al-Tanqih is his
most important work on logic, in which, in addition to presenting some logical
structures, he has analyzed a number of logical problems. In this book,
following the method of earlier scholars, Mulla Sadra defines logic and says,
“Logic is the scale of perception which evaluates thoughts so that the correct
is distinguished from the corrupt.” In this definition, he emphasizes the
instrumental role of logic.
In fact Mulla Sadra’s endeavors
in the field of logic led to the enrichment of the one-thousand-year-old legacy
of research on logic in Islamic philosophy. In the eyes of this
theologian-philosopher the domain of logic’s detection of errors is the world of
thought. This world, too, is exposed to axiomatic, intuitive, and blessed or
ishraqi (illuminative) perceptions.
Wherever and wherever one
wishes to attain new knowledge relying on organizing and selecting from his
background knowledge, one needs logic.